Horizontal Boring Machine
The boring machine is one of the most versatile machine tools is using to bore
holes in large and heavy parts such as engine frames, steam engine cylinders,
machine housing, etc.
In addition to its primary purpose of boring, the range of speeds and feeds
providing to the various traversing parts allow drilling, milling & facing to perform
with equal facility.
By the fitting of simple attachments, the use of the machine can extend still
further to include screw cutting, turning, planetary grinding, or gear cutting.
In types of boring machine, the horizontal boring machine is one of the most
useful and important machines. Let’s see how it works.
Horizontal Boring Machine Parts
In a horizontal boring machine, the work is supporting on a table which is
constant and the tool turns into a horizontal axis. A horizontal boring machine
can perform boring, reaming, turning, threading, facing, milling, grooving,
recessing and many other operations with suitable tools.
Workpieces which are heavy, irregular and off-balance can conveniently hold and
easy to machining. Different types of horizontal boring machines design to suit
Following are the main parts of horizontal boring machine:
2. Headstock supporting column
3. End supporting column
5. Saddle and table
6. Boring bars
The bed is that part of the machine which is fitting on the floor of the shop
and has a box-like casting.
The bed supports the column, tables and other parts of the machine.\
2. Headstock Supporting Column
The column provides support to the headstock and guides it up and down
accurately by the guideways.
The column which has hollow houses and is heavily ribbed to add rigidity.
Some columns are stationary, others may be made to slide along the bed.
3. End Supporting Column
The end supporting column situated at the other end of the bed houses.
Bearing block is provided for supporting a long boring bar.
The column may be adjusted on the slideways of the bed towards or away
from the spindle for supporting the different length of boring bars.
It may be moved at right angles to the spindle as in the case of a floor type
The headstock mounting on the column supports, drives, and feeds the
A spindle provides rotary movement to the tool and the quill may be moved
longitudinally to provide feeding movement of the boring cutter.
The spindle nose is provided with a tapered hole for receiving taper shanks
of the boring bar or any other tool.
A headstock may move up and down on the column for setting the tool for
different heights of the work.
5. Saddle and Table
The tables support the work and is, therefore, provides T-slots for holding
The saddle allows the work to be moved longitudinally on the bed. The
table may be moved crosswise on the saddle.
These movements may be slow or rapid and are performed by hand or
6. Boring Bars
The boring bar supports the cutter for holding operations on jobs having
large bore diameters.
For short holes, the bar may support on the headstock spindle end only.
For long work, the bar is supported on the spindle end and on the column
Types of Horizontal Boring Machine
1. Table type horizontal boring machine.
2. Floor type horizontal boring machine.
1. Table Type Horizontal Boring Machine
The table types are the most common of all horizontal boring machines.
The headstock may adjust vertically on the column and the spindle has a
horizontal feed motion.
The machine essentially consists of a bed, headstock supporting column, end
supporting column, headstock, saddle and table, and boring bar. The table,
saddle and headstock may adjust by leadscrews using micrometre dials.
This type of machine is suitable for general purpose work where other
operations, in addition to boring, is required to be performed.
2. Floor Type Horizontal Boring Machine
The floor type horizontal boring machine having notable uses a constant floor-
plate on which T-slots is providing to hold the work.
The headstock supporting column and the end supporting column is mounting on
the runways which are placed at right angles to the spindle axis.
This is so designed for holding very large and heavy workpieces which are
difficult to be mounted and adjusted on a table.
Size Of A Horizontal Boring Machine
To specify a boring machine fully other important dimensions such as spindle
motor horsepower, column heights, size of the table or size of the floor plate,
spindle speeds, feeds and length of feeds, floor space requires, the weight of the
machine, etc. should also be stated.
Boring Machine Mechanism
The machine contains different controls for movements of the different parts of
the machine. A table type machine has the following movements:
1. The headstock and the end supporting block may be moved up and down.
2. The spindle may be rotating. The spindle has different speeds.
3. A spindle may move in or out by hand or power for feeding.
4. The saddle and the table may move by hand or power.
5. The columns may move by hand or power.
All these movements may be given independently or in combination with two or
As all the controls are housed in a particular position of the machine the operator
may give close attention to the work while controlling the machine.
Horizontal Boring Machine Operations
In boring, the work remains stationary and the tool is rotated. Holes are bored by
using boring bars.
Multiple holes are bored one after another by changing the position of the
workpiece aligning it each time with the boring bar.
To bore a hole, the boring bar is fitted to the spindle and the cutter is adjusting in
the boring bar to the required dimension and a light cut is then taken.
The bore is measured, required speed and feeds adjusting and the cut is then
In a boring machine, for milling operation, any type of milling cutter may fit the
spindle. Facing cutter is using for machining flat vertical surfaces.
For face milling operation, the tool or work may be fed to complete the cut. The
end mill is using to produce grooves and slots. Is illustrates in face milling
All other operations such as drilling reaming, counterboring, tapping and
spotfacing operations may perform similarly to boring operations. Is illustrating in
the drilling operation.
Vertical Turning Lathe Machine
There are many applications where what seems like old-fashioned technology
is the best means to make parts. The traditionally designed KARAM VTL
(vertical turning lathe) is an example of this class of technology. While its
basic form has been around awhile, the VTL hasn't stopped evolving. New
versions of these machine tools incorporate many of the productive
technological innovations found in horizontal turning centers.
WELL SUITED FOR A VARIETY OF
Foundries with machining capabilities, or even those that outsource their
machining, can benefit from vertical turning technology. Essentially, a vertical
turning center configuration takes a traditional lathe and stands it on end. This
design provides a number of important production and cost benefits, and is
particularly well suited to cutting a variety of castings: brake discs, pump
housings, aircraft parts, heavy-equipment parts, energy field parts, and more.
ADVANTAGES OF VERTICAL TURNING
Vertical turning lathes are large, ram-type machines, also called vertical boring
mills (VBMs). These lathes are not high-production machines, but they are
ideal for heavy-duty and high-power cutting of medium and large parts.
An important advantage of the VTL machine is the ease in which large
heavy workpieces can be set and held in place for machining. An
advantage for any shop using VTL is that gravity is an important factor in
holding these parts. Generally only a minimum of hard clamping is
Vertical turning lathes that use the main spindle to load and unload
themselves are finding increasing acceptance as multitasking
capabilities make them efficient processing centers for producing
Vertical turning lathes give foundries with machine shops as well as
those that outsource machining the ability to cut bigger and heavier
An indexable tool turret head distinguishes traditional VTLs from VBMs
Aside from turret head or ram head, VTL machine design uses a rotating
table to support the workpiece and use a bridge-type construction that
carries the X-axis. A ram traverses the X-axis guides and delivers the
In terms of productivity, vertical turning centers typically improve cycle
times because shops can be more aggressive with their cuts.
The Basics of Lathes and How They Work
Although there are different types of lathes (see below), they all use a similar
method in which the workpiece rotates against the cutting tool, the latter of
which is stationary. Milling machines, of course, work in the opposite way. With
a milling machine, the workpiece is stationary, whereas the cutting tool
Lathes are designed to remove material from workpieces by exposing them to
a cutting tool. The workpiece is secured to the lathe, at which point it rotates
while pressing into a cutting tool. The rotational movement of the workpiece
allows for the fast, efficient and precise removal of material.
Lathes are large and complex machines consisting of many individual
components. The headstock, for example, is the component that holds the
workpiece as it rotates. Lathes also have a tailstock to which the workpiece
can be secured. The tailstock is typically used for exceptionally large or long
The Different Types of Lathes
There are nearly a dozen types of lathes, each of which are designed for a
different purpose. Woodworking lathes live up to their namesake by
supporting wooden workpieces. They typically operate at a speed of 5,00 to
1,000 revolutions per minute (RPM).
In addition to woodworking lathes, there are also metalworking lathes. Metals
are generally harder than wood, so metalworking lathes require a stronger
and sharper cutting tool than their woodworking counterparts. Metalworking
lathes offer a range of different cutting tools, varying in size, shape and
material, but they are all designed to cut through common metals like
aluminum and steel.
A glass-working lathe, of course, is a type of lathe that’s used for glass
workpieces. It’s used to make glasses and optical materials by exposing them
to a stationary cutting tool. Of course, there are many other types of lathes,
some of which include metal-spinning lathes, ornamental turning lathes, cue
lathes and patternmaker’s lathes.
A lathe is a machining tool that features a rotating workpiece and a stationary
cutting tool. The workpiece is secured to the headstock or tailstock, which
rotates the workpiece while it presses against a stationary cutting tool.
What is milling?
Milling is the process of shaving the additional material from the flat or irregular surface of job or
work item through the cutter. Cutter is advanced with the required forced and desired direction of
milling to remove the unwanted material from the work piece.
What is a Milling Machine?
The Milling Machines are multipurpose machines to perform the cutting operations on metal, wood
or any other hard surfaces. The milling machine has a cutter which is advanced on the job placed on
the table in the required state to give the required cuts or shaves for getting the desired produce. It
can work in vertical as well as horizontal directions to shave off small sections of unwanted extra
surfaces to get the final product.
Uses of Milling Machines
A quality Milling machine is a versatile tool capable of multitasking work. It is used in cutting, boring,
drilling, routing and shaping the surfaces. It is most commonly used in the workshops of institutes
imparting technical education to the students.
Parts of Milling Machine and its functions
A brief description of parts along with the functional importance is mentioned below.
A Base builds the foundation of a milling machine. All other parts of milling machine are mounted or
affixed on it. It is made of cast iron since it needs the strength to carry the whole machine.
A Column is mounted on the base of a milling machine in a vertical direction to support the table and
knee. It is used to house all the driving parts responsible for the milling work. It is also made of cast
The knee is the part responsible for supporting saddle and table of the milling machine. Again, it is
also made of cast iron. The knee moves vertically ie up and down on sideways and changes the
distance between tool and work piece.It is placed on the column. It is the knee which is adjusted by
raising and lowering the lever for the job to be performed.
It is affixed between the table and the knee. It plays the important role of interlinking balancer
between table and knee. It moves diagonally to the column and slides on the sideways. Its main task
is to set the horizontal motion for the work item. The saddle is also made of cast ion.
The table is usually rectangular slot placed on the knee and this is part of a milling machine which is
used to hold the work item. The table is also made of cast iron since the table holds the work item
over it with clamping bolts. Table of milling machine provides the freedom up to the standard of three
The spindle is another important part of the milling machine which is used to carry tool. The spindle
is that part of milling machine which drives the cutting tool in rotatory motion. There is a slot on the
front side of the spindle where the cutting tool is affixed. The spindle may be manual or motor driven.
Arbor and Arbor Support
Arbor is a kind of extension for the spindle in the horizontal type of milling machine. It is fitted as per
the requirement for the holding and moving the tool in the required direction. And arbor supports are
used to support the arbor; it is joined with an arbor on end and overhanging arm on the other end. It
helps in controlling the Arbor during cutting operations.
Ram is an overhanging arm positioned in the vertical direction. The ram can be a moved angular or
transversal in and out direction on the column.
Working of Milling Machine
Working of milling machine can be better explained in below mentioned points.
1. Set the cutting tool on the Arbor attached to the spindle
2. Move the knee in a downward direction.
3. Place the work item over the table and clamp it with clamping bolts
4. Set all the controlling positions at zero before the milling operation.( position of the knee,
5. Now, it is a time to set the spindle in motion by supply power through the motor, which will
result in rotating the cutting tool.
6. Now feed the work item by moving the knee, saddle, and table.
7. Advance the cutting tool on a work item in the desired level to weed out the extra material
from the surface to give the desired shape to the metal, wood, plastic and any other hard
Radial Drilling Machines
Radial Drilling machine mechanism has fully changed the exterior of the industry. It is
been intended for medium to large and heavy work pieces. They are been characterized
by their simple handling, with its powerful drilling presentation. It has extreme constancy
and large traversing range. Radial Drilling equipment supply accuracy, competence,
and reliability in batch manufacture environments. They provide portability for setting up
and assembly work. With the rising technology, industries have been benefited with the
advancements in the Radial Drilling Machine.
It has changed the phase of the drilling operations. This mechanism includes the parts
Head:Place where the incisive piece is been found that consists of unexpected
apparatuses for holding the bit
Gearbox:Changing with the speed of process that can be extended or decreased
relying on the operation.
Handle:Controlling with the boring apparatus
Supportive Section:Shows where the head and arm pivot is about.
The main attitude that puts the radial drilling machine front as compared to other
machines in the drilling industry is the adapting structure for considerable output by
empowering it to pivot over a wide course which that performs overpowering
mechanical works. There are also a number of key commitments of the radial drilling
machine to the drilling manufacturing. The key promise to the industry is its flexibility
and effortlessness of operation.
Working Principle of Radial Drilling Machine:
A hole is been generated with the help of this machine as the revolving edge of the drill
exerts a large force on the work piece. In the drilling operation, the taking away of metal
is been done by shearing and extrusion.
Benefits of the Radial Drilling Machine to the production:
Radial Drilling Machines are suitable for large-sized work pieces
Radial Drill Machine consists of the drill head that can be moved, familiar in height and
rotated. It is capable of positioning its head through its radial arm device. This is one of the
reason, industries are benefited and prefer using this type of drilling machine
Works professionally on dissimilar metals and wood equipment
Faster use and process due to the compact size
The device is rough and durable as well as opposed to unpleasant conditions.
Movement can be either manual or power driven
The stand is rotated through 360 degrees
High Precision and correctness
What is Shaping Machine?
Shaping Machine is a machine designed for giving desired shapes to the surfaces that may be
horizontal, vertical and flat. A shaping tool is used to cut in curves, different angles, and many other
shapes. A disc is responsible for the tool rotation which results in the forward and backward
movement. The cutting tool is used to give the shape to the hard surface of metal or wood by
removing the excess material.
Working Mechanism of Shaping Machine
The shaping machine operates in the reciprocating type of machine function. Here the work piece is
fixed on the machine table and the cutting tool is placed on the work piece. Reciprocating
movements over the work piece results in forward and backward strokes. Forward stroke is
responsible for cutting action over the object and backward movement is responsible for restoring its
position without any cutting action.
Description of Parts of Shaping Machine with its Functions
Working Mechanism of shaping machine is very simple but effective. The parts responsible for its
working along with its functional importance are listed below.
Base: The base of shaping machine is kind of bed to hold the different parts of shaping machine, it
is made up of cast iron since the strength of a base is very important. The base bears the vibration
shock of forward and backward movement of stroke responsible for shaping action.
Body:Body of the machine consists of pats named Pillar, Frame, and Column. The body of the
shaping machine is affixed on the base of the shaping machine. The column is also made up cast
iron and it is box shaped part which is placed on the base. Column plays the covering role and
supports the reciprocating movement in the operation of the machine.
Cross ways: These are the sideways affixed vertically and horizontally across the table to allow
the movement of the table.
Stroke adjuster: Stroke adjuster absorbs the vibration shock of stock by controlling the length of
Cross rail:The cross rail is affixed on the front part of the body which can be moved in an upward
and downward direction. It enables to perform shaping operation at different positions.
Ram:The Ram is responsible for the reciprocating action of the column sideways. Forward and
backward movement of ram is called a stroke.
Table: A table is kind of flat body affixed over the frame to hold the work piece on which shaping
action needs to be performed.
Clapper box: It is used to carry the shaping tool holder. Clapper box is responsible for the smooth
and hindrance free movement of backward stroke to prevent the damage in the form of wear and
How the shaping task is performed over the object
A Shaping machine’s task is based on the stroke mechanism. Forward stroke performs the action
and backward or return stroke brings back the tool to its original position for the next forward stroke.
The working of a shaping machine is expressed in below points.
1. First and foremost task is to place the work piece on the table.
2. After that cutting tool is placed in the tool holder mounted on the Ram
3. It is time to supply power by starting the motor for performing a reciprocating action.
4. In the reciprocating action cutting tool performs the task on work piece and removes the
extra material from the work piece to get the desired shape.
5. Here forward stroke performs the shaping action on the work piece by cutting the extra
material and backward stroke or return stroke does not perform cutting action, it is kind of
restoring stroke for the next actionable forward stroke.
Various Types of Shaping Machines
Shaping machines types are classified basis it motion type, Ram travel, table design, and the type of
Shaping machine classified under the type of Motion are Crank, Geared and Hydraulic.
Shaping machine classified under the type of Ram Travel are Horizontal and Vertical
Shaping machine classified according to the design of the table are Standard and Universal.
Shaping machine classified according to the type of stroke are Push and Draw.