Horizontal Boring Machine

The boring machine is one of the most versatile machine tools is using to bore

holes in large and heavy parts such as engine frames, steam engine cylinders,

machine housing, etc.

In addition to its primary purpose of boring, the range of speeds and feeds

providing to the various traversing parts allow drilling, milling & facing to perform

with equal facility.

By the fitting of simple attachments, the use of the machine can extend still

further to include screw cutting, turning, planetary grinding, or gear cutting.

In types of boring machine, the horizontal boring machine is one of the most

useful and important machines. Let’s see how it works.

Horizontal Boring Machine Parts

In a horizontal boring machine, the work is supporting on a table which is

constant and the tool turns into a horizontal axis. A horizontal boring machine

can perform boring, reaming, turning, threading, facing, milling, grooving,

recessing and many other operations with suitable tools.

Workpieces which are heavy, irregular and off-balance can conveniently hold and

easy to machining. Different types of horizontal boring machines design to suit

different purposes.

Following are the main parts of horizontal boring machine:

1. Bed

2. Headstock supporting column

3. End supporting column

4. Headstock

5. Saddle and table

6. Boring bars

1. Bed

 The bed is that part of the machine which is fitting on the floor of the shop

and has a box-like casting.

 The bed supports the column, tables and other parts of the machine.\

2. Headstock Supporting Column

 The column provides support to the headstock and guides it up and down

accurately by the guideways.

 The column which has hollow houses and is heavily ribbed to add rigidity.

 Some columns are stationary, others may be made to slide along the bed.

3. End Supporting Column

 The end supporting column situated at the other end of the bed houses.

 Bearing block is provided for supporting a long boring bar.

 The column may be adjusted on the slideways of the bed towards or away

from the spindle for supporting the different length of boring bars.

 It may be moved at right angles to the spindle as in the case of a floor type

machine.

4. Headstock

 The headstock mounting on the column supports, drives, and feeds the

tool.

 A spindle provides rotary movement to the tool and the quill may be moved

longitudinally to provide feeding movement of the boring cutter.

 The spindle nose is provided with a tapered hole for receiving taper shanks

of the boring bar or any other tool.

 A headstock may move up and down on the column for setting the tool for

different heights of the work.

5. Saddle and Table

 The tables support the work and is, therefore, provides T-slots for holding

various devices.

 The saddle allows the work to be moved longitudinally on the bed. The

table may be moved crosswise on the saddle.

 These movements may be slow or rapid and are performed by hand or

power.

6. Boring Bars

 The boring bar supports the cutter for holding operations on jobs having

large bore diameters.

 For short holes, the bar may support on the headstock spindle end only.

 For long work, the bar is supported on the spindle end and on the column

bearing block.

Types of Horizontal Boring Machine

The:

1. Table type horizontal boring machine.

2. Floor type horizontal boring machine.

1. Table Type Horizontal Boring Machine

The table types are the most common of all horizontal boring machines.

The headstock may adjust vertically on the column and the spindle has a

horizontal feed motion.

The machine essentially consists of a bed, headstock supporting column, end

supporting column, headstock, saddle and table, and boring bar. The table,

saddle and headstock may adjust by leadscrews using micrometre dials.

This type of machine is suitable for general purpose work where other

operations, in addition to boring, is required to be performed.

2. Floor Type Horizontal Boring Machine

The floor type horizontal boring machine having notable uses a constant floor-

plate on which T-slots is providing to hold the work.

The headstock supporting column and the end supporting column is mounting on

the runways which are placed at right angles to the spindle axis.

work.

This is so designed for holding very large and heavy workpieces which are

difficult to be mounted and adjusted on a table.

Size Of A Horizontal Boring Machine

To specify a boring machine fully other important dimensions such as spindle

motor horsepower, column heights, size of the table or size of the floor plate,

spindle speeds, feeds and length of feeds, floor space requires, the weight of the

machine, etc. should also be stated.

Boring Machine Mechanism

The machine contains different controls for movements of the different parts of

the machine. A table type machine has the following movements:

1. The headstock and the end supporting block may be moved up and down.

2. The spindle may be rotating. The spindle has different speeds.

3. A spindle may move in or out by hand or power for feeding.

4. The saddle and the table may move by hand or power.

5. The columns may move by hand or power.

All these movements may be given independently or in combination with two or

more movements.

As all the controls are housed in a particular position of the machine the operator

may give close attention to the work while controlling the machine.

Horizontal Boring Machine Operations

In boring, the work remains stationary and the tool is rotated. Holes are bored by

using boring bars.

Multiple holes are bored one after another by changing the position of the

workpiece aligning it each time with the boring bar.

To bore a hole, the boring bar is fitted to the spindle and the cutter is adjusting in

the boring bar to the required dimension and a light cut is then taken.

The bore is measured, required speed and feeds adjusting and the cut is then

completed.

In a boring machine, for milling operation, any type of milling cutter may fit the

spindle. Facing cutter is using for machining flat vertical surfaces.

For face milling operation, the tool or work may be fed to complete the cut. The

end mill is using to produce grooves and slots. Is illustrates in face milling

operation.

All other operations such as drilling reaming, counterboring, tapping and

spotfacing operations may perform similarly to boring operations. Is illustrating in

the drilling operation.

Vertical Turning Lathe Machine

There are many applications where what seems like old-fashioned technology

is the best means to make parts. The traditionally designed KARAM VTL

(vertical turning lathe) is an example of this class of technology. While its

basic form has been around awhile, the VTL hasn't stopped evolving. New

versions of these machine tools incorporate many of the productive

technological innovations found in horizontal turning centers.

WELL SUITED FOR A VARIETY OF

CASTINGS

Foundries with machining capabilities, or even those that outsource their

machining, can benefit from vertical turning technology. Essentially, a vertical

turning center configuration takes a traditional lathe and stands it on end. This

design provides a number of important production and cost benefits, and is

particularly well suited to cutting a variety of castings: brake discs, pump

housings, aircraft parts, heavy-equipment parts, energy field parts, and more.

ADVANTAGES OF VERTICAL TURNING

LATHES

Vertical turning lathes are large, ram-type machines, also called vertical boring

mills (VBMs). These lathes are not high-production machines, but they are

ideal for heavy-duty and high-power cutting of medium and large parts.

 An important advantage of the VTL machine is the ease in which large

heavy workpieces can be set and held in place for machining. An

advantage for any shop using VTL is that gravity is an important factor in

holding these parts. Generally only a minimum of hard clamping is

required.

 Vertical turning lathes that use the main spindle to load and unload

themselves are finding increasing acceptance as multitasking

capabilities make them efficient processing centers for producing

chucked parts.

 Vertical turning lathes give foundries with machine shops as well as

those that outsource machining the ability to cut bigger and heavier

castings.

 An indexable tool turret head distinguishes traditional VTLs from VBMs

 Aside from turret head or ram head, VTL machine design uses a rotating

table to support the workpiece and use a bridge-type construction that

carries the X-axis. A ram traverses the X-axis guides and delivers the

cutter.

 In terms of productivity, vertical turning centers typically improve cycle

times because shops can be more aggressive with their cuts.

LATHE MACHINES

The Basics of Lathes and How They Work

Although there are different types of lathes (see below), they all use a similar

method in which the workpiece rotates against the cutting tool, the latter of

which is stationary. Milling machines, of course, work in the opposite way. With

a milling machine, the workpiece is stationary, whereas the cutting tool

rotates.

Lathes are designed to remove material from workpieces by exposing them to

a cutting tool. The workpiece is secured to the lathe, at which point it rotates

while pressing into a cutting tool. The rotational movement of the workpiece

allows for the fast, efficient and precise removal of material.

Lathes are large and complex machines consisting of many individual

components. The headstock, for example, is the component that holds the

workpiece as it rotates. Lathes also have a tailstock to which the workpiece

can be secured. The tailstock is typically used for exceptionally large or long

workpieces.

The Different Types of Lathes

There are nearly a dozen types of lathes, each of which are designed for a

different purpose. Woodworking lathes live up to their namesake by

supporting wooden workpieces. They typically operate at a speed of 5,00 to

1,000 revolutions per minute (RPM).

In addition to woodworking lathes, there are also metalworking lathes. Metals

are generally harder than wood, so metalworking lathes require a stronger

and sharper cutting tool than their woodworking counterparts. Metalworking

lathes offer a range of different cutting tools, varying in size, shape and

material, but they are all designed to cut through common metals like

aluminum and steel.

A glass-working lathe, of course, is a type of lathe that’s used for glass

workpieces. It’s used to make glasses and optical materials by exposing them

to a stationary cutting tool. Of course, there are many other types of lathes,

some of which include metal-spinning lathes, ornamental turning lathes, cue

lathes and patternmaker’s lathes.

In Conclusion

A lathe is a machining tool that features a rotating workpiece and a stationary

cutting tool. The workpiece is secured to the headstock or tailstock, which

rotates the workpiece while it presses against a stationary cutting tool.

Milling Machine

What is milling?

Milling is the process of shaving the additional material from the flat or irregular surface of job or

work item through the cutter. Cutter is advanced with the required forced and desired direction of

milling to remove the unwanted material from the work piece.

What is a Milling Machine?

The Milling Machines are multipurpose machines to perform the cutting operations on metal, wood

or any other hard surfaces. The milling machine has a cutter which is advanced on the job placed on

the table in the required state to give the required cuts or shaves for getting the desired produce. It

can work in vertical as well as horizontal directions to shave off small sections of unwanted extra

surfaces to get the final product.

Uses of Milling Machines

A quality Milling machine is a versatile tool capable of multitasking work. It is used in cutting, boring,

drilling, routing and shaping the surfaces. It is most commonly used in the workshops of institutes

imparting technical education to the students.

Parts of Milling Machine and its functions

A brief description of parts along with the functional importance is mentioned below.

Base

A Base builds the foundation of a milling machine. All other parts of milling machine are mounted or

affixed on it. It is made of cast iron since it needs the strength to carry the whole machine.

Column

A Column is mounted on the base of a milling machine in a vertical direction to support the table and

knee. It is used to house all the driving parts responsible for the milling work. It is also made of cast

iron.

Knee

The knee is the part responsible for supporting saddle and table of the milling machine. Again, it is

also made of cast iron. The knee moves vertically ie up and down on sideways and changes the

distance between tool and work piece.It is placed on the column. It is the knee which is adjusted by

raising and lowering the lever for the job to be performed.

Saddle

It is affixed between the table and the knee. It plays the important role of interlinking balancer

between table and knee. It moves diagonally to the column and slides on the sideways. Its main task

is to set the horizontal motion for the work item. The saddle is also made of cast ion.

Table

The table is usually rectangular slot placed on the knee and this is part of a milling machine which is

used to hold the work item. The table is also made of cast iron since the table holds the work item

over it with clamping bolts. Table of milling machine provides the freedom up to the standard of three

degrees.

Spindle

The spindle is another important part of the milling machine which is used to carry tool. The spindle

is that part of milling machine which drives the cutting tool in rotatory motion. There is a slot on the

front side of the spindle where the cutting tool is affixed. The spindle may be manual or motor driven.

Arbor and Arbor Support

Arbor is a kind of extension for the spindle in the horizontal type of milling machine. It is fitted as per

the requirement for the holding and moving the tool in the required direction. And arbor supports are

used to support the arbor; it is joined with an arbor on end and overhanging arm on the other end. It

helps in controlling the Arbor during cutting operations.

Ram

Ram is an overhanging arm positioned in the vertical direction. The ram can be a moved angular or

transversal in and out direction on the column.

Working of Milling Machine

Working of milling machine can be better explained in below mentioned points.

1. Set the cutting tool on the Arbor attached to the spindle

2. Move the knee in a downward direction.

3. Place the work item over the table and clamp it with clamping bolts

4. Set all the controlling positions at zero before the milling operation.( position of the knee,

saddle etc.)

5. Now, it is a time to set the spindle in motion by supply power through the motor, which will

result in rotating the cutting tool.

6. Now feed the work item by moving the knee, saddle, and table.

7. Advance the cutting tool on a work item in the desired level to weed out the extra material

from the surface to give the desired shape to the metal, wood, plastic and any other hard

surface.

Radial Drilling Machines

Radial Drilling machine mechanism has fully changed the exterior of the industry. It is

been intended for medium to large and heavy work pieces. They are been characterized

by their simple handling, with its powerful drilling presentation. It has extreme constancy

and large traversing range. Radial Drilling equipment supply accuracy, competence,

and reliability in batch manufacture environments. They provide portability for setting up

and assembly work. With the rising technology, industries have been benefited with the

advancements in the Radial Drilling Machine.

It has changed the phase of the drilling operations. This mechanism includes the parts

like-

Head:Place where the incisive piece is been found that consists of unexpected

apparatuses for holding the bit

Gearbox:Changing with the speed of process that can be extended or decreased

relying on the operation.

Handle:Controlling with the boring apparatus

Supportive Section:Shows where the head and arm pivot is about.

The main attitude that puts the radial drilling machine front as compared to other

machines in the drilling industry is the adapting structure for considerable output by

empowering it to pivot over a wide course which that performs overpowering

mechanical works. There are also a number of key commitments of the radial drilling

machine to the drilling manufacturing. The key promise to the industry is its flexibility

and effortlessness of operation.

Working Principle of Radial Drilling Machine:

A hole is been generated with the help of this machine as the revolving edge of the drill

exerts a large force on the work piece. In the drilling operation, the taking away of metal

is been done by shearing and extrusion.

Benefits of the Radial Drilling Machine to the production:

 Radial Drilling Machines are suitable for large-sized work pieces

 Radial Drill Machine consists of the drill head that can be moved, familiar in height and

rotated. It is capable of positioning its head through its radial arm device. This is one of the

reason, industries are benefited and prefer using this type of drilling machine

 Works professionally on dissimilar metals and wood equipment

 Faster use and process due to the compact size

 The device is rough and durable as well as opposed to unpleasant conditions.

 Movement can be either manual or power driven

 The stand is rotated through 360 degrees

 High Precision and correctness

Shaping Machine

What is Shaping Machine?

Shaping Machine is a machine designed for giving desired shapes to the surfaces that may be

horizontal, vertical and flat. A shaping tool is used to cut in curves, different angles, and many other

shapes. A disc is responsible for the tool rotation which results in the forward and backward

movement. The cutting tool is used to give the shape to the hard surface of metal or wood by

removing the excess material.

Working Mechanism of Shaping Machine

The shaping machine operates in the reciprocating type of machine function. Here the work piece is

fixed on the machine table and the cutting tool is placed on the work piece. Reciprocating

movements over the work piece results in forward and backward strokes. Forward stroke is

responsible for cutting action over the object and backward movement is responsible for restoring its

position without any cutting action.

Description of Parts of Shaping Machine with its Functions

Working Mechanism of shaping machine is very simple but effective. The parts responsible for its

working along with its functional importance are listed below.

Base: The base of shaping machine is kind of bed to hold the different parts of shaping machine, it

is made up of cast iron since the strength of a base is very important. The base bears the vibration

shock of forward and backward movement of stroke responsible for shaping action.

Body:Body of the machine consists of pats named Pillar, Frame, and Column. The body of the

shaping machine is affixed on the base of the shaping machine. The column is also made up cast

iron and it is box shaped part which is placed on the base. Column plays the covering role and

supports the reciprocating movement in the operation of the machine.

Cross ways: These are the sideways affixed vertically and horizontally across the table to allow

the movement of the table.

Stroke adjuster: Stroke adjuster absorbs the vibration shock of stock by controlling the length of

the stroke.

Cross rail:The cross rail is affixed on the front part of the body which can be moved in an upward

and downward direction. It enables to perform shaping operation at different positions.

Ram:The Ram is responsible for the reciprocating action of the column sideways. Forward and

backward movement of ram is called a stroke.

Table: A table is kind of flat body affixed over the frame to hold the work piece on which shaping

action needs to be performed.

Clapper box: It is used to carry the shaping tool holder. Clapper box is responsible for the smooth

and hindrance free movement of backward stroke to prevent the damage in the form of wear and

tear.

How the shaping task is performed over the object

A Shaping machine’s task is based on the stroke mechanism. Forward stroke performs the action

and backward or return stroke brings back the tool to its original position for the next forward stroke.

The working of a shaping machine is expressed in below points.

1. First and foremost task is to place the work piece on the table.

2. After that cutting tool is placed in the tool holder mounted on the Ram

3. It is time to supply power by starting the motor for performing a reciprocating action.

4. In the reciprocating action cutting tool performs the task on work piece and removes the

extra material from the work piece to get the desired shape.

5. Here forward stroke performs the shaping action on the work piece by cutting the extra

material and backward stroke or return stroke does not perform cutting action, it is kind of

restoring stroke for the next actionable forward stroke.

Various Types of Shaping Machines

Shaping machines types are classified basis it motion type, Ram travel, table design, and the type of

cutting stroke.

 Shaping machine classified under the type of Motion are Crank, Geared and Hydraulic.

 Shaping machine classified under the type of Ram Travel are Horizontal and Vertical

 Shaping machine classified according to the design of the table are Standard and Universal.

 Shaping machine classified according to the type of stroke are Push and Draw.